examples of ethnographic research

Wednesday, December 23rd, 2020

While researchers provide quotes taken directly from the original data and provide a direct analysis of their quotes, they often avoid contextual background information. Most anthropology protocols involve ethnographic research (including observation, participant observation, interviews, group discussions, audio-visual records, etc.) In explaining the ontological underpinnings of institutional ethnography, Smith (2005) proposed that no individual can be objective since we live in a world of experiences. To come up with a good topic, one needs to be familiar with the themes studied under ethnography. The word ethnography comes from the Greek word ethos which means ethnicity and graphos which means something written. The journal is a way to practice reflexive processes. Culture is a vital concept to the development of ethnographic anthropology. As a result of this focus, qualitative sampling is based on acquiring enough and suitable information. Furthermore, the use of videotaping helps ethnographers in capturing the broader array of behavioral data, which is difficult to collect via traditional methods. The male centric nature of traditional ethnographic research led most critics to question the universality of their ethnographic work (Macdonald, 2002). It is vital information to correctly analyze the data collected through interviews and observations. Medical anthropologists have also suggested that researchers should incorporate both universal and culturally specific elements of clinical activities in their research (Kleinman, 1981). grounded theory, phenomenological research, ethnographic research, and historical techniques. With technological development, studies in health research are depending on modern techniques as means of data collection. Overall, it is evident that the majority of researchers from the Chicago School valued triangulated data, indicating the fact that ethnographies were methodologically more rigorous. Ethnographic work published in health research, show researchers have extensively attended to the issue of rigor in regard to their data. The ethnographic essay topic that one chooses to write on has a significant impact on the quality of the paper. For example ,questions can be asked: Does the methodology and subsequent methods fit with the research question? How have malls changed the shopping sector? Researchers often engage in activities such as prolonged engagement, triangulation, and peer debriefing. Why and what elements of their research was captured in their fieldwork, which was not achieved through their interviews? Another issue that is critical in ethnographic work is the context and contextual analysis. Ethnography samples. The ethnographic photo-essays that students from Anthropology 380: Visual & Ethnographic Methods have submitted here are examples of how IWU anthropology students learn to conduct ethnographic research with visual media--in this case, still photography. Similarly, existing ethnographic health research listed in Table 2 (Braaf et al., 2014; Bright et al., 2012; Carroll et al., 2008; Gustafsson et al., 2013) does not focus on culture from a border perspective. The first question rhetorically asked whether Texans had the right to enact their religious ideology into law as the majority… This flexibility might be viewed as a positive feature, because it allows the researcher to use the best method of data collection for their studies. However, with the evolution of ethnography, the dynamic of fieldwork has changed extensively. The fact that ethnography has been used by researchers in different disciplines such as medicine, business, public health, and nursing (Hughes, 1992) and has been growing in popularity is a noteworthy factor for the diversification of ethnography as a methodology (Boyle, 1994). The ethnographic photo-essays that students from Anthropology 380: Visual & Ethnographic Methods have submitted here are examples of how IWU anthropology students learn to conduct ethnographic research with visual media--in this case, still photography. So, here is a ready solution. Numerous forms of ethnographic practices have been developed including focused ethnography. Recently, Photovoice has gained popularity among ethnographers. Such an arrangement incorporates a proper analysis and evaluation of the problem. Ethnography as a field developed at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century (Brewer, 2000); it arose primarily in the era of western colonization. While new forms of ethnographies have developed as a response to shifting understandings and to re-definitions of culture, some key elements of ethnographic research have been lost. How are these relations organized?” (Campbell & Gregor, 2002, p. 7). The scope of the research was generally vast and required a long-term commitment to gain an insider’s perspective (Richards & Morse, 2007). Research conducted by medical anthropologist mainly focused on mental health, public health, biomedical ethics, health improvement, and nursing and global health (Baer et al., 1997). Ethnographic observation gives the most precise and detailed information out of all qualitative research methods. Many ethnographers travelled long distances where they spent a great deal of time learning about participants’ language, understanding unfamiliar ways of life, and most important to be accepted by participants’ communities. It is evident that new forms of ethnographies used in health research studies (such as Bright et al., 2012) do not incorporate a wide range of conventional ethnographic features and often result in less time spent in the field. Characteristic Good Research Paper All Illustrators. We have examined a large body of literature in health research which indicates that qualitative studies conducted in health research have overlooked the importance of the ontological and epistemological underpinnings (Braaf et al., 2014; Bright et al., 2012; Carroll et al., 2008; Kidd & Finlayson, 2010; McCabe & Holmes, 2013; Pino, Soriano, & Higginbottom, 2013). It is vital to note that there was distinction in how culture was viewed in different disciplines. Ethnography (from the Greek = nation = writing) refers to the genre of writing that presents qualitative description of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. View or download all the content the society has access to. This page will provide you with easy access to sample papers that have been collected throughout the years. Health researchers appear to spend less time in the field, time spent in the field is regarded as less important, and the importance of the context of field notes is underestimated. The concept of ethnography has been developed within social anthropology; but the term is now sometimes used in a looser way in for example opinion and market research. Article: Reading an article on the history and function of tattoos from Smithsonian Magazine. Furthermore, Willis (2010) believed that when we return back to the participants for verification, our minds are still frozen in our data, whereas our participants have moved on in their lives. In this part, you explain how you did your research. Ontology focuses on the nature of reality by exploring questions such as what is a reality and how does it function? Fieldwork is an important element of ethnographic research. Login failed. Get that notebook as we embark on this exciting experience. Therefore, researchers suggest that some features (experiences of patients and meanings associated with patients’ medical conditions) of the clinical setting are best suited to be examined through methods of data collection such as participant observation common in ethnographic research (Rice & Ezzy, 1999). Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. Alternatively, it could also be argued that there is lack of standardized methods of data collection due to the versatile nature of this methodology. Before we dive into the details of ethnographies, let's clarify the differences between quantitative and qualitative studies. In general, ethnography refers to a “formal description of foreign people, their habits, and customs” (Almagor & Skinner, 2013, p.2). In addition, medical anthropologist recommended that thorough knowledge acquired by doctors about patients’ perception of an illness will enable them to deliver better quality care (Kleinman, 1981). If you aren’t sure whether this applies, talk to your Faculty Sponsor or contact Human Research Protections (aka … We note that there is a lack of balance between background and methodology in published ethnographic studies. To ensure rigor in their studies, we found that researchers in health research focus on using following wide range of criteria: (1) triangulation, (2) prolonged engagement, (3) peer debriefing, (4) member checking, (5) thick description, and (6) reflexivity. Cook (2005) has attributed the increased demand of ethnography in health research to the congruency that exists between the two. We note that this factor is greatly undermined in the current health literature. Further, additional approaches such as visual ethnography and institutional ethnography have resulted in enriching the methods of data collection in ethnographic works in health research. If you still need more professional writing help on any other essay, we would be more than glad to help. Smith does not view subjective experiences as undesirable biases, instead, she sees them as vital in shaping our understanding of experiences (Slade, 2010). The existence of personal stories or experiences is essential in understanding oneself in the context of a culture by comparing personal experiences with others in the same domain, which increases learning from such experience (Ellis, 2004). Related: Qualitative Research - Methods, Types, and Examples. That is the first part; however, finding quality examples of ethnographic research topics is another battle. Introduction Ethnography is a Greek term derived from ethnos meaning “people” and graphein meaning “writing.” This research method was developed during the Enlightenment in protest to positivism or the view that “the world (including human society) can be described in terms of generalizable laws” (Boellstorff et al., 2012, p.14). It is remarkable to note that the modern forms of ethnographies incorporate the basic methods of data collection (interviews, participant observation, and field notes). As noted by Boyle (1994), the “doing ethnography” has gone through an extensive evolution and has changed significantly. Authors’ NoteWe would like to acknowledge Alberta Centre for Child, Family & Community Research (ACCFCR) for their support. Autoethnographers, on the contrary, mainly evaluate their significant experiences that are related and linked to a culture. Once the data are collected, the researcher then immerses themselves in the text (transcripts /field notes) to look for patterns and themes in their textual data. Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) Modern Language Association (MLA) Example. Research immerse themselves in the culture, the behaviors, and the events of their participants to gather intensive data. Ethnography Samples College Writing Cary. Ethnography is primarily an inductive mode of research which may utilize several methods of data collection. Different instructors may recommend several writing guidelines for such a paper, but it generally follows a standard format. We will start with the easiest ones as we slowly advance to the technical topics. However, the focus of researchers from the Chicago school was to examine “the urban ‘other’ where as anthropologist focused on colonial non-European ‘other’” (Jones, 2010, p.21). It does not stand in opposition to conventional ethnography. Hence, it is not surprising that there is still an ongoing debate about the concept of culture and how problematic it is among contemporary ethnographers. Sitemap. We [autoethnographers] want to dwell in the flux of lived experience; they [analytical ethnographers] want to appropriate lived experience for the purpose of abstracting something they call knowledge or theory (Ellis & Bochner, 2006, p. 431). Furthermore, the field of ethnographic research is diverse and much divided about important factors such as the length and depth of fieldwork, the epistemological/ontological frame work, and data collection (see Table 1 for a comparison of different forms of ethnography). Yet, don’t panic, we’ve got a legion of professional soldiers to cover your back on this. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. Understandings of culture have shifted and led to redefinitions of culture, and some key elements of ethnographic research have been lost. This study particularly focused on understanding the culture of medical students and their day-to-day lives. The use of multiple methods enhances the trustworthiness (i.e., accuracy) of the data collected and guides the ethnographer in making decisions as the study progresses. Before we embark on learning how to write an ethnography, let us have a look at an ethnographic essay outline. Ethnographers become often much immersed in their data and come to know participants well. In institutional ethnography, the focus is on understanding the link between institutions and peoples’ experiences. Context provides a comprehensive picture of particular issues that are being investigated. The type of questions examined by critical ethnographers is engraved with political purpose, understanding the depth of social problems and the goal to eradicate power imbalances in a particular culture (Madison, 2012). Required fields are marked *. Ethnographic research is a multi-dimensional research design that can be adapted to different fields including business, medicine, education, and psychology. In ethnographic research, the researcher is often compared with a journalist researching a story and looking for promising lines of enquiry. We want to emphasize here that we only looked at the most commonly used forms. Researchers should be explicit about their ontological and epistemological stance to better understand the perspective from which they explore and find answers for their research question. Culture is a core concept in ethnographic research. For critical ethnographers, the “dynamic and mutual influence of ethnographer and research field on each other is referred to by the term reflexivity” (Muecke, 1994, p. 194). “Autoethnography shares the storytelling feature with other genres of self-narrative but transcends mere narration of self to engage in the cultural analysis and interpretation” (Chang, 2008, p. 43). Lean Library can solve it. Promise? Ethnographic research can take place in many types of communities including formal and infor­ mal organizations such as workplaces, urban communities, fan clubs, trade fares, shopping centres, and social media. Institutional ethnography has been used in health research to explore a wide range of health-related issues ranging from understanding nurses’ stress (McGibbon, Peter, & Gallop, 2010) to understanding the production of health care disparities (Sinding, 2010). Before we dive into the details of ethnographies, let's clarify the differences between quantitative and qualitative studies. Willis (2010) argued that “ethnographers become frozen in time as is his or her account of event in the field” (p.556). Each of these approaches involves different techniques. One of the first steps to ensure rigor is by determining methodological congruence (Richards & Morse, 2007). Major ethnographic development was witnessed in Europe, particularly Britain, which included the development of classic ethnographies within the discipline of anthropology (Macdonald, 2002). It is critical to note that the use of the above-mentioned methods for ethnographic data collection was not only present in the works of classic ethnographers such as Malinowski but also continues to be utilized in health research. Examples of ethnographic research subjects are found across an array of cultural, geographic, ethnic, political and identitarian boundaries from the homeless population in Chicago to Italian investment bankers or Sri Lanka female migrant workers. Finding A-grade examples of ethnographic research topics may not be a walk in the park for college students. More recently, ethnographers have attended more closely to exploring specific cultures within a border range of cultures or intracultural diversity (examination subcultures with culture; Fetterman, 2010). However, current health research studies (Braaf et al., 2014; Bright et al., 2012; Carroll et al., 2008; Gustafsson et al., 2013) to greater extent undermine such vital questions in their research design section. The two important areas that were under criticism “included anthropology of women and ethnographic reflectivity” (Macdonald, 2002, p.68). This study extended the work by Malinowski (1922), whose account of the economic system of Trobriand Island was an incomplete representation. whereas in digital ethnography, they use social media, smartphones, online blogs, etc. Ethnography and phenomenology are two detailed, qualitative research studies that are used in the field of social sciences. Culture was and continues to be a contentious concept in ethnography. In addition, O’Byrne (2012) highlighted that ethnography as methodology produced knowledge that was critical for generating health-related interventions, which were of significant value to researchers from different disciplines; he concluded that “ethnography becomes a disciplinary and bio-political tool” (p.866) in public health. Different ethnographic research paper topics have different endings. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Do we have a subdiscipline? Ethnography allows researchers to gain deeper cultural knowledge about health and illness (Hodgson, 2000). It is necessary to read extensively on your area of research to … Health researchers who conduct ethnographies need to focus on contextual data as much as they focus on what was said. Studies in health research (Carroll et al., 2008; Gagnon et al., 2013; Kidd & Finlayson, 2010) do pay close attention to the requirements involved for appropriate informed consent demanded by institutional review boards. Types of Ethnographic Research Realistic Ethnographic Research. In conclusion, we recommend that health researchers conducting ethnography be more explicit in detailing their “tradition and paradigm of inquiry” (O’Byrne, 2007, p. 1389). Contextual knowledge is essential in enhancing our understanding (Knoblauch & Schnettler, 2012). The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent.

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