bermuda grass in texas

Wednesday, December 23rd, 2020

It can be considered a forage grass, a turf grass or a noxious weed. Germination typically occurs during mid-March in the Panhandle region, early March in North and Central Texas, and mid-February in South Texas. Once it has been determined that fertilization is needed, you can select the appropriate fertilizer. Repeated applications may be necessary. Procedures, forms, and costs are at http://plantclinic.tamu.edu. Common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) varieties often have coarse leaf texture and are light green com pared to hybrid varieties. Summer annual weeds such as crabgrass and spurge (Chamaesyce sp) germinate in the spring, grow for several months, and then flower, set seed, and die in the fall. The best time to apply these herbicides is mid to late spring after sedges have emerged from the canopy. As plants grow, they take in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and convert it into carbohydrates through photosynthesis. When using pre-emergence herbicides formulated on granular carriers such as fertilizer, it is important to apply products with little to no nitrogen. Begin mowing Bermuda grass when it starts turning green in the spring. Once you select an appropriate fertilizer, you must determine the appropriate application rate. Developed by East Texas Seed Company, Tyler, Texas and marketed exclusively by East Texas Seed and authorized dealers. The grass … The grass … Soil can easily be tested by following the instructions on the “Urban and Homeowner Soil Sample Information Form” from the Texas A&M Agrilife Extension Soil, Water, and Forage Testing Laboratory (http://soiltesting.tamu.edu/files/urbansoil.pdf). Buffalo grass is … This sod forming grass is highly variable in appearance with stolons that root at the end of … edu/turfgrass-insects/. Watering: Although drought resistant, a regular watering (at least weekly) to maintain the grass … These are most often planted as seed, but some (e.g. Many perennial broadleaf weeds can be treated with the same herbicides (Table 2) that control annual broadleaf weeds, but their perennial growth habit, makes control more difficult. Insects and diseases affect bermudagrass at various times and produce very different symptoms depending on the causal agent. Pennington Texas Bermuda grass seed blend is perfect for sunny, Texas lawns. It is important to apply these products to healthy, actively growing, turfgrass at the rate indicated on the product label. Copyright:CC BY 3.0. At Overton, Texas, a 5-year … When applied following these directions, it usually results in an application of 0.8 to 1.0 pound of nitrogen per 1000 square feet. weeds such as nutsedge more problematic. We don’t actually recommend that people plant Bermuda grass or any other grass by a seed.If we’re talking about residential applications in the Houston area and around the Texas … Just as with N,  P, and K, applications of secondary nutrients or micronutrients should always be made based on soil test results.With the exception of iron in high pH soils, micronutrients rarely need to be applied to home lawns. 1994. Fertilizer. When selecting a nitrogen fertilizer, consider the benefits of products that combine quick- and slow-release nitrogen. Turfgrasses generally perform well when at least 60 percent of ET is replaced with irrigation or natural rainfall during the growing season. Conversely, winter annual weeds such as henbit (Laminum amplexicaule) and rescuegrass (Bromus catharticus) germinate in late summer/early fall, grow throughout the fall and winter, and then flower, set seed and die in the spring. To avoid these problems you can use slow-release fertilizers that deliver nitrogen into the lawn gradually. Interestingly, Bermuda grass … It is also important to sweep or blow stray fertilizer granules off hardscapes back into the lawn. These are good indicators of drought stress. If the ground is sandy, a half inch of water needs to be applied once every third day to keep grass growing as it should. Texas. U.S. However, post-emergence crabgrass control may be inconsistent and this herbicide can cause temporary bermudagrass discoloration for 1 to 2 weeks after application. This is a common problem in the deep, sandy soils of East Texas. Over irrigation and application  of nitrogen fertilizer in the early fall can increase the incidence and severity of large patch. Bermuda grass, Cynodon Dactylon, is the turf grass that is widely adapted in Texas. Summer irrigation can prevent excessive drought stress. (281)558-9948 - 1723 Hwy 6 South (between Briar … It is important to research other crops or grass types surrounding the bermudagrass to avoid damage. All Rights Reserved, Lamar University | Sul Ross State University | Texas State University, San Marcos. Information on the amount of slow- and quick-release nitrogen can be found on the fertilizer label (Figure 3). In addition to liquid post-emergence herbicides, “weed and feed” products that contain fertilizer with a post-emergent broadleaf herbicide combined with fertilizer are widely available. New shoots and roots are produced during and following the spring months. Texas Tough is a mixture of Giant, Common and turf type … Common insect pests include white grubs, fall armyworms, and fire ants. Common insect pests include white grubs, fall armyworms, and fire ants. For Example, using mowing heights at the higher end of the recommended range can significantly reduce infestations of weeds such as crabgrass, while over-irrigating can make. For more information on nutsedge and kyllinga see “Nutsedege and Kyllinga Control for Homeowners” at  https://aggieturf.tamu.edu/wp-content/uploads/NutsedgeFINAL.pdf. Bermudagrass may struggle in moderate to dense shade. This can make a lawn grow rapidly  for a few weeks after fertilizing, and cause scalping, accumulation of leaf clippings, or other problems. Do not apply a pre-emergent if you are planning to overseed with ryegrass in the fall. To calculate how much fertilizer to apply based on a specific fertilizer analysis and application rate, do the following: 1) Measure the area of the lawn in square feet (Area), 2) Select the rate at which you are applying the product (Application Rate), 3) Determine the analysis of the fertilizer (Analysis). This is a simple way for manufacturers to help customers determine how much fertilizer to buy. Bermudagrass is one of the most heat and drought tolerant species of turfgrass available in Texas. Common Bermuda Grass Germinating from Seed. More information on turfgrass insects is available from https://aggieturf.tamu. Effects of temperature and relative humidity on the toxicity of glycophosate to bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon). Texturf-10 is sensitive to chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, turning a straw color several days after an application of these materials. Bermudagrass Home Lawn Management Calendar, Blackland Income Growth Virtual Conference, Ranchers Agricultural Leasing Workshop: Online course, Connecting Agriculture and Health – From the Ground Up: online, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wc8xY2YuOfM. Pennington's Penkoted technology protects the seed from deadly fungus by enabling the seed to establish faster during the early growth period when grass is most susceptible to disease. Multiply these three values together to determine how much total fertilizer to apply. Nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) are the three macronutrients that turf- grasses need most—they are always presented in this order on the label. While bermudagrass tolerates drought, traffic, pests, and other stresses very well, it is not very shade tolerant. Perennial weeds such as clovers, dallisgrass, and nutsedge may grow during warmer or cooler months. Pre-emergence herbicides for annual grassy weeds (Table 1) may also partially control annual broadleaf weeds. Where irrigation is not available it can often survive on natural rainfall. Additional information on the weed life cycles can be found at https:// aggieturf.tamu.edu/turfgrass-weeds/. Nitrogen should only be applied to green, actively growing bermudagrass. Many varieties of bermudagrass are available—it can be purchased as seed, sprigs, or sod (https://aggieturf.tamu. Annual grasses are most easily controlled with pre-emergence herbicides (Table 1). Do you have a question -or- need to contact an expert? Bahiagrass is a pasture grass that invades lawns primarily in East Texas. For bermudagrass lawns, it is more appropriate to select a pre-emergence herbicide on a fertilizer carrier that contains only phosphorous (P) and/or potassium (K). Knowing your soil test results and calculating how much fertilizer to use will allow you to develop a nutrient management plan that meets your lawn’s needs without exceeding them. During this time, warm-season grasses are dormant and cooler temperatures, reduced growth, and natural rainfall, combine to meet their ET needs. This is because turfgrasses recycle nutrients back into the soil as plant matter (clippings, roots, etc. It is import. Pre-emergence herbicides will not control weeds adequately after they emerge. A fertilizer that combines these sources can help lawns by supplying immediate growth and a long- term response as well. They obtain these mineral nutrients from the soil, air, and water. It spreads by stolons and rhizomes. Ecology 57(1): 205-208. Alternatively, the law… This sod forming grass is highly variable in appearance with stolons that root at the end of the nodes. This condition is most likely to occur when the grass is in a weakened condition due to certain growth requirements not being met. but have perennial structures year-round. Texas Tough Bermuda Grass Seed is used for pasture grazing and hay production in the warm climates and transition climates of the United States. For Example, using mowing heights at the higher end of the recommended range can significantly reduce infestations of weeds such as crabgrass, while over-irrigating can make weeds such as nutsedge more problematic. It is also common for fertilizer manufacturers to list secondary nutrients such as calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), or sulfur (S), or even micronutrients such as iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), boron (B), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), or chlorine (Cl). Severely infected leaves may appear tan to straw-colored. Sources of variation in Cynodon dactylon (L). Removing sedges by hand often stimulates underground tubers and can make the problem worse. ).Grass clippings that return to the lawn through mowing are broken down by soil microorganisms and can be used by the plant for future growth. Post-emergence herbicides available in retail stores for controlling grassy weeds mostly target crabgrass. Products that contain halosulfuron-methyl (Sedgehammer) and sulfentrazone (Ortho Nutsedge Killer for Lawns) will control yellow nutsedge. Mowing: Mow the lawn slightly lower than the regular summer mowing height. These audits also identify irrigation efficiency, gaps in coverage, etc. These factors determine if and how much fertilizer you need to meet plant needs. The measurement should be ½ to 1 pound of nitrogen (N) per 1000 square feet. Listed as one of the three most troublesome weeds in crops such as: surgarcane, cotton, corn and vineyards, bermudagrass is difficult to eradicate once established due to deep rhizomes and rapid reproduction rate. They are often more attractive due to their fine leaf texture, greater density, and dark green color. Among bermudagrasses, Celebration and TifGrand are two varieties that have improved shade tolerance and may perform adequately in moderate shade. An outstanding selection of three perennial varieties of bermudagrass … Grow a beautiful, drought and traffic tolerant lawn. Remember that green leaf tissue in turfgrasses is where photosynthesis takes place. Germination typically occurs during mid-March in the Panhandle region, early March in North and Central Texas, and mid-February in South Texas. Over-applying most nutrients will not affect plant growth, but too much nitrogen can stimulate excessive turfgrass growth. Coastal, the most widely planted variety in Texas, is a highly productive Bermuda grass producing both rhizomes and stolons and is adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions, Corriher-Olson said. Always follow the label directions regarding appropriate environmental conditions—avoid treating a lawn that is under drought stress or that is greening up in the spring. Download a printer-friendly version of this publication: Bermudagrass Home Lawn Management Calendar, View more Gardening & Landscaping information ». St Augustine. This equation can be customized to different situations by changing the area, application rate, or fertilizer analysis and re-calculating. Our work makes a difference, in the lives of Texans and on the economy. Remember that after annual weeds flower and complete their life cycle they soon die. However, be sure to remove the entire clump and the underground rhizomes, or it will regrow. It encourages turfgrasses to grow laterally, and frequent mowing can result in improved density. Even if you apply a pre-emergence herbicide in the spring to control summer annual weeds, you must treat again in the fall to control winter annual weeds. Many of these nutrients are present in the soil naturally, but their amount and availability vary based on soil pH, chemistry, and the plant’s needs. Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a popular commercial grass found in over 100 countries throughout the world. The recommended mowing height for bermudagrass home lawns is 1 to 2 inches using a rotary mower. Set the mowing height at 1 to 2 inches for Common bermudagrass and 1/ 2 to 11/ 2 inches for hybrid varieties. © 2014 Texas Invasive Species Institute. This, in turn, reduces CO2 intake and growth. (organic) or as synthetic fertilizers (inorganic), the nitrogen in these products must be converted into inorganic ammonium (NH4+) or nitrate (NO3-) ions before plants can take them up. Texas Native Bermuda grass is a fine textured, warm season perennial species with a creeping growth habit. Occasional pests include bermudagrass mites, hunting billbugs, and sod webworms. This puts unnecessary stress on the plant from which it will have to recover—it indicates that the lawn is being mowed too low or not often enough. For more information, including an instructional video, on how to perform an irrigation audit, visit http://irrigation.tamu.edu/coursematerial.php. Consequently, lawns that are mowed too low or too infrequently have a decreased photosynthetic rate, produce and store fewer carbohydrates and are often less stress tolerant than lawns that are mowed appropriately. Too much shade can cause turfgrass to lose density and allow shade tolerant weeds to thrive. St. Augustine is a good choice for a shady Texas lawn with mature trees, as it prefers … From these nodes, lateral buds develop that produce stems measuring from 5 to 40 cm in height. This is usually during early fall for winter annual broadleaf weeds and late spring for summer annual broadleaf weeds. Bermuda grass requires approximately 1 – 1.25 inches of water per week to stay healthy during the summertime months. How- ever, isoxaben is a pre-emergence herbicide that controls pre-emergence broadleaf weeds and may be a good option where annual broadleaf weed infestations are severe. … Annual broadleaf weeds are easily controlled with post-emergence herbicides while plants are small, before they begin to flower. The mower setting should be around 1 inch high. Products that contain metsulfuron-methyl (certain Scotts Company products) will provide bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) control, but repeat applications may be necessary. Bermuda TifSport Bermuda $ 140.00 – $ 202.50. Some of these improved varieties have finer leaf texture, darker color, and greater density. To calculate how much fertilizer to apply based. Lawns with established cover and well-developed root systems can build up an adequate supply of organic nitrogen in the soil. Experimental ecological genetics in Plantago II. If manual removal is preferred, take care to remove the entire plant including the roots because this will allow for regeneration in that area. This selection is based on the soil test results, whether the turfgrass has high- or low-traffic, whether the soil is sand or clay, the target application rate, and the desired outcome. Be careful not to set the mower too low, as it may scalp the lawn. Texas Tough is a mixture of seeded bermudagrass consisting of one-third Giant and two-thirds Common bermudagrass, one-half of which is hulled and the other half unhulled. This form tells when, where, and how to collect soil samples. Regardless of whether nitrogen is applied as plant material, manure, waste by-products, etc. Nutrients are most efficiently assimilated by lawns when they are actively growing and not under heat or drought stress. Too much shade can cause turfgrass to lose density and allow shade tolerant weeds to thrive. Remove no more than one-third of the leaf area with any one mowing. Products that contain sulfosulfuron (Certainty) or imazaquin (Image Kills Nutsedge) will control yellow and purple nutsedge. Texturf-10 was released by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in 1957. Weed Science 25(5): 448-451. Example: A homeowner wants to apply 1.0 lb of nitrogen per 1,000 ft2 to a 4,500 ft2 lawn and is purchasing fertilizer with a 15-4-9 analysis. Mature roots are yellow or brown where young roots are white. Plasticity in morphology and biomass allocation in Cynodon dactylon, a grass species forming stolons and rhizomes. When dormant, if temperatures are above freezing, Bermuda grass should be watered with half the amount of water required during the growing season. Do not apply fertilizer if heavy rain is expected within the following 24 hours. Nitrogen is the mineral plants need in the largest quantity. One way to schedule irrigation is by inspecting the turf for wilting leaves and a blue-gray color throughout the lawn. Watering Zoysia Grass in Texas. The general rule when mowing turfgrass is to never remove more than 1/3 of the leaf tissue at once—this is referred to as the “one-third rule.” For example, if the lawn is 1 inch tall, then it should be mowed again as soon as it reaches a height of 1.5 inches. Oikos 70(1): 99-106. However, post-emergence crabgrass control may be inconsistent and this herbicide can cause temporary bermudagrass discoloration for 1 to 2 weeks after application. Most of  these products should not be applied around tree and shrub driplines or come in contact with other ornamental plants. Returning clippings to the lawn is a great way to recycle nutrients (see Fertilization). Scientifically known as Cynodon dactylon, Bermuda grass is a type of turf that is native to South Africa and believed to have spread to the U.S through Bermuda. of respondents would recommend this to a friend. Hybrid bermudagrass varieties are typically crosses between common bermudagrass and African bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × Cynodon transvaalensis). Bermuda and St. Augustine grasses are the most common, with St. Augustine growing in the warmest parts of the state, especially around the Gulf Coast. Crop Science 9(6): 774-778. Developed by East Texas Seed Company, Tyler, Texas and marketed exclusively by East Texas Seed and authorized dealers. This happens because turfgrass leaves grow upward to compete for light with neighboring plants. These hybrid varieties are typically preferred for golf courses, athletic fields, and some home lawns. It is a narrow-leaved, vigorous perennial, with both above ground and below ground creeping stems. Another method, which uses water responsibly, is to use evapotranspiration (ET) rates as a reference point for scheduling irrigation. When weeds are present, it is important to identify and address the cause of thinning turfgrass before treating for weeds. This warm-season … Perennial weeds may re-grow and require repeat applications. Turfgrasses require inorganic nutrients for growth. When this happens, turfgrasses may wilt, turn brown, and go dormant. lead tolerance in Plantago lanceolata and Cynodon dactylon from a roadside. Mowing too low removes too much leaf tissue, and will cause inadequate density, root development, and a reduction in overall turfgrass health. For example, a fertilizer that contains 15 percent nitrogen (N), 4 percent phosphate (P2O5), and 9 percent potash (K2O) is represented as 15-4-9. Fertilizer nutrients are typically applied at rates of 0.5 to 1.0 lb of nutrient per 1,000 ft2. For large plants, you may need a shovel to completely remove them and backfill the hole with topsoil. Post-emergence herbicides control annual and perennial broadleaf weeds more easily than they do grasses. One way to perform an audit is to hire a certified landscape irrigation auditor to evaluate your irrigation system (Figure 2). If turfgrasses are mowed too tall, or not frequently enough, they may lose density. Other species require cultivation by stolons or rhizomes. Hybrid varieties such as those used on golf courses and athletic fields can be mowed to less than 1 inch. in Texas home lawns (Figure 1). The exact time of introduction is not known, but records from Mease's Geological Account of the United States list bermuda grass as a principle grass in 1807. If your soil has not … Affiliation: USDA Agricultural Research Service In places where bermudagrass is not desired and considered a weed, grass pesticides (such as Roundup) can be utilized for removal, but may require more than one application. An outstanding selection of three perennial varieties of bermudagrass seeds … When weeds are present, it is important to identify and address the cause of thinning turfgrass before treating for weeds. Once you select an appropriate fertilizer, you must determine the appropriate application rate. Princess) are also available as sod. Common diseases include take-all root rot, spring dead spot, and large patch. This allows bermudagrass to be highly fertile and become established in a broad range of habitats. For warm-season perennial broadleaf weeds such as Virginia buttonweed (Diodia virginiana), applications are most effective in mid to late spring after weeds emerge from winter dormancy or in early fall before they enter winter dormancy. These are popular because they can be applied using a fertilizer spreader instead of a sprayer. It is drought tolerant … Give your lawn all the benefits of traditional Bermudagrass plus Texas toughness with Pennington Texas Bermuda grass seed. Many warm-season turfgrasses are drought adapted and can survive dormancy for long periods. Bermuda Grass Maintenance: Color: Deep green Texture: Lush and medium to fine. However, their appearance and performance may decline. How- ever, bermudagrass benefits from appropriate supplemental irrigation. Therefore, it is often important to supplement these nutrients through fertilization. In the fall, reduce nitrogen in favor of a high-potassium fertilizer to help it … After the first days or weeks of the growing season, it will become apparent how often the irrigation system should be set to prevent drought stress. Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a popular commercial grass found in over 100 countries throughout the world. Bermuda grass is not shade-tolerant, though, so it’s best for open landscapes that receive full sunlight. The most accurate way to determine the nutrient status of soils is through soil testing. Do not apply quinclorac if St. Augustine- grass is present—it will injure this grass significantly. This should be done just before the time of lawn green-up, which usually occurs during late April or early May. It may not be worth the  time and expense to control a weed that will die naturally within a few weeks. Photographer:Charles T. Bryson You can use Aggie Catch Cans, graduated cylinders, jars, cans, etc., and then use a ruler to measure how much water is in each container. Among bermudagrasses, Celebration and TifGrand are two varieties that have improved shade tolerance and may perform adequately in moderate shade. If the nutrient status of a lawn is found to be deficient, fertilization recommendations will be provided in the soil test results. However, this typically requires multiple weekly mowings using a reel mower. It grows rapidly during late spring and summer, remains … It is important to consider how much management you can provide before selecting a bermudagrass variety. Herbicides applied to flowering weeds late in their growing season may not be effective. Although bermudagrass can be a nuisance in agricultural settings, it is widely used in lawns and sports fields such as golf courses in the Southern United States. U.S. Habitat: Climates that experience mild winters with temperatures that never fall below freezing with moderate to high rainfall similar to tropical and subtropical climates. More information on turfgrass insects is available from https://aggieturf.tamu. It is also not appropriate to fertilize during hot, dry periods in the late summer when moisture may be limiting, or in the late fall and winter when lawns are, or are becoming, dormant. If soil samples are not available, go for the full amount of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (N-P-K) turf fertilizer, with a ratio of 4-1-2. It encourages turfgrasses to... Irrigation. In lieu of this calculation, many fertilizer products are designed specifically for lawns and will often indicate how much area they will cover. These herbicides (Table 2) should be applied after the target weed has emerged—they are effective when the herbicide can be absorbed through the leaves. Fertilization may not be as necessary in older lawns. Over-irrigating in the spring and fall can also increase the incidence of diseases such as large patch and take-all patch. Irrigation can then be used to relieve this stress, and then repeated when drought stress re-occurs. Areas adapted to Bermudagrass Bermudagrass Recommended Not adapted – Urban area. Another way is to perform a ‘catch-can test’ by placing a series of containers throughout the lawn and setting the irrigation system to run for a predetermined amount of time. Identification tools and an image gallery of over 100 common Texas weeds are available at: https://aggieturf.tamu.edu/turfgrass-weeds/. 1969. You can identify diseases properly by sending samples to the Texas Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory. For bermudagrass home lawns, mowing must often be done weekly during the growing season, or as often as necessary to prevent scalping. Dormant Bermuda grass … For bermudagrass lawns, it is more appropriate to select a pre-emergence herbicide on a fertilizer carrier that contains only phosphorous (P) and/or potassium (K). Common may be found growing under almost every conceivable condition throughout the bermudagrass-growing region. Seed from these crosses, however, is often sterile, so hybrid bermudagrass varieties must be planted as sod or sprigs. Zoysia grass … … While bermudagrass tolerates drought, traffic, pests, and other stresses very well, it is not very shade tolerant. Proper variety selection and management practices are vital to preventing or limiting weed infestations. This part of the grass is what drives the synthesis and accumulation of carbohydrates in the leaves, stems, and roots. Watering Bermuda Grass in Texas. Bermudagrass can grow in a variety of soils, but requires adequate amounts of sun and does not thrive in levels of low light. Common winter annual grasses in lawns include annual bluegrass (Poa annua) and rescuegrass. Bermudagrass is one of the only turf grasses that is droubt tolerant due to it's ability to become semidormant during periods of unfavorable environmental conditions. edu/turfgrass-insects/. If possible, use a mower with a bagger to collect the clippings and remove any dead material left from winter dormancy. Bermudagrass is a hot-weather plant that thrives in temperatures between 95 degrees F and 100 degrees F. Due to its ability to withstand harsh conditions, Bermudagrass has become the … If pre-emergent herbicides are not used, crabgrass can  be controlled with post -emergent herbicides that contain quinclorac (Table 2). However, when plants enter drought stress, the stomata close to prevent losing excess water. This process is called transpiration—it is what provides the cooling effect from lawns and other plants around homes. Bermuda Grass Care in Texas Mowing. on a specific fertilizer analysis and application rate, do the following: Measure the area of the lawn in square feet (Area), Select the rate at which you are applying the product (Application Rate), Determine the analysis of the fertilizer (Analysis), A dense, healthy lawn is the best defense against weeds. Defense against weeds, before they begin to flower than they do.. 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Slow-Release nitrogen or limiting weed infestations turfgrasses to grow laterally, and then repeated when drought.! Be removed by hand often stimulates underground tubers and can make the problem worse fertilization! The lower the mowing height, the more frequently you will need to contact an?. Soil temperatures increase, grow throughout the summer months, but too much nitrogen can be removed by hand that! Adequately after they emerge in late spring/early summer when soil temperatures increase, grow throughout summer! Lawns primarily in East Texas seed and authorized dealers, then disappear first!

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